In the study of energy We should know the important principle about energy, which is “We cannot create new energy. And in the same way we cannot make the energy that already exists”. This principle is known as “Law of Conservation of Energy” Law of Conservation of Energy In other words, Energy will not be lost anywhere. But energy can be transformed.
Each day the world receives enormous amounts of energy from the sun. If human beings have the potential to change solar energy, for example, to change energy from sunlight into electricity such as installing solar micro inverter .This method is regarded as converting solar energy. to all electrical energy Humans do not need any other power plants.
Transforming solar energy into electrical energy can be done in 2 ways:
5.3.1 Converting solar energy into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells
Before talking about converting solar energy into electrical energy using solar cells, it is necessary to mention the stories of solar cells first as follows.
History of solar cells
Solar cells or solar cells or what we are familiar with is installing solar micro inverter or solar cells or photovoltaic cells. It is an electrical device which directly converts light energy or photons into electrical energy. Solar cells convert light energy into electrical energy when light falls on it without the need for an external power supply. and when connecting to load will cause current to flow through that load
from natural phenomena When light of the right frequency strikes the surface of a metal, electrons are released. photoelectric and called the ejected electron photoelectron
from the discovery of this photoelectric effect Is regarded as the beginning of the origin of the solar cell in the year 1954 (B.E. 2497) 3 American scientists consisting of Chapin (Chapin) Fuller (fuller) and Pearson discovered a new technology for forming a P-N junction using semiconductor diffusion. into the silicon crystals. and when this cell sheet is exposed to sunlight Found that there will be an electric current flowing through the PN-N junction. This cell is the world’s first solar cell. And from the efficiency measurements in electricity generation at that time, it was found that the efficiency was only 6 percent.
Solar cells were used in earnest for the first time in a spacecraft in 1958 because the interior of the vehicle contained equipment. lots of electronics Later it was used in satellites. and space stations until the oil crisis. Therefore, solar cells are getting more and more attention. Because the production of electricity from solar cells can be done just by bringing the solar cells to the sunlight. Solar cells can now produce electricity.
solar cell It is an electronic invention made from semiconductors. Serves to convert light energy into electrical energy directly. such as installing solar cells where the electricity obtained is direct current In the future, solar cells are likely to be an important alternative energy source. It is a source of energy that does not emit any pollution.
Current solar cells can be divided into 2 major groups:
1) group made of silicon type semiconductor
Groups made of silicon semiconductors are divided into 2 types:
- a) crystalline silicon b) non-crystalline silicon
2) Non-silicon group
A group made of non-silicon compounds such as gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride. and copper indium diselenide, etc. There are both single crystal and combined crystal. Solar cells made from gallium arsenide provide
The efficiency is up to 20 – 25%, but the price is very high. not popularly used on the earth therefore works for satellites and most light concentrating systems But the development of modern production processes will make it cheaper. and be used more in the future.
Before discussing the working principle of solar cells First we need to know what electricity is, electricity. is the flow of electric charge. If it is the current in the conductor, then it is the flow of electrons.
power generation equipment
Devices that can produce electricity that are commonly known are dynamos or generators, batteries, solar cells. All 3 devices have completely different working principles as follows.
Working Principle of Dynamo or Generator Working principle of solar cell and simple working principle of battery Next time I will tell you in detail how each type of working principle is different and how each type has its working process.